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Logic & Scientific Philosophy

Definitions

Truth – actual state of matter – applied to premise (if one premise is false, the conclusion is false.)
Validity – correct form – containing premises from which the conclusion may logically be derived.

Soundness
– Argument/theory is valid
– All of its premises are true

Example:
All men are mortal
Socrates is a man
Therefore Socrates is mortal

This argument is valid because the conclusion is true, along with the premises, and since the premises are true, this makes the argument sound.

An example of an argument that is valid, but not sound:

All birds with wings can fly
Penguins have wings
Therefore penguins can fly

Since the first premise is false, the argument, even though is valid, is not sound.

Syllogism

Categorical
Correct example: Pro

https://talonsphilosophy.wordpress.com/2012/10/03/jonathan-toews-a-famous-hockey-player/

Con

https://talonsphilosophy.wordpress.com/2012/10/04/bedtime-syllogism/

The argument of this example is not true, due to the premises being incorrect. The premises are not true, therefore makes the argument not sound. The conclusion of this syllogism however is valid, as the conclusion follows from the premises.

Disjunctive

Pro
https://talonsphilosophy.wordpress.com/2012/10/02/disjunctive-syllogismtouchception/

Con
https://talonsphilosophy.wordpress.com/2012/10/07/vonnegut-logic/

Fallacy

A fallacy is an argument/ statement based of false or invalid interference.

Example:
Penguins are black and white
Some old tv shows are black and white
Therefore some penguins are old tv shows

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Discussion

One thought on “

  1. Reblogged this on Tredding Deep Waters and commented:
    terms rarely used or understood by definition rather than contextual usage

    Posted by kjens1089 | October 14, 2012, 9:26 pm

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